7/25/2014

Consejo de Derechos Humanos de la ONU da primer paso para tratado sobre las obligaciones de derechos humanos de las empresas transnacionales

26th session of the UN Human Rights CouncilCredit: UN Photo / Jean-Marc FerréEn un nuevo intento de responsabilizar a las corporaciones transnacionales responsables de violaciónes de derechos humanos, el Consejo de Derechos Humanos de las Naciones Unidas ha decidido establecer un grupo de trabajo para preparar un tratado de imponer obligaciones jurídicas internacionales de derechos humanos en las corporaciones transnacionales.

El mandato del grupo de trabajo será la de "elaborar un instrumento internacional jurídicamente vinculante que regule, en el derecho internacional de los derechos humanos, las actividades de las empresas transnacionales y otras empresas comerciales". 

Cuando el tratado este listo, será el primer acuerdo internacional de derechos humanos para regular específica y explícitamente las actividades de las empresas transnacionales en relación con los individuos y las comunidades y sus derechos fundamentales. Los esfuerzos previos produjeron directrices y normas importantes, pero estos no son directamente exigibles legalmente contra los agentes empresariales. Sin embargo, los Estados tienen ciertas obligaciones legales para regular las empresas y otros actores privados cuando sus actividades afectan el goce de los derechos humanos. 

Members of the Working Group on the issue of human rights and transnational corporations and other business enterprisesEl grupo de trabajo "Human rights and transnational coporations and other bussines enterprises":

La nota completa en inglés:

In a new attempt to hold transnational corporations accountable for human rights violations, the United Nations Human Rights Council has decided to establish a working group to prepare a treaty imposing international human rights legal obligations on transnational corporations. [OHCHR Press Release] The mandate of the working group will be to “elaborate an international legally binding instrument to regulate, in international human rights law, the activities of transnational corporations and other business enterprises.” UN Human Rights Council, Resolution 26/9, Elaboration of an internationally legally binding instrument on transnational corporations and other business enterprises with respect to human rights, A/HRC/26/L.22/Rev.1, 26 June 2014, para. 1.
The expected treaty, when eventually finalized, would be the first international human rights agreement to specifically and explicitly regulate the activities of transnational corporations with regard to individuals’ and communities’ fundamental rights. Previous efforts produced important guidelines and standards, but these are not directly, legally enforceable against business actors. States, however, do have certain legal obligations to regulate corporations and other private actors when their activities impact the enjoyment of human rights.
The decision has triggered mixed responses from the international community. While some civil society groups welcome the new working group, others fear that its mandate is too narrow in scope – by only including transnational corporations – or that it will delay or polarize discussions concerning corporate liability for human rights abuses.

Working Group for a Business and Human Rights Treaty

Member States of the Human Rights Council were also divided on the issue of establishing the working group for a business and human rights treaty, with the majority of States voting against it or abstaining from voting altogether. Twenty States voted in favor of the resolution, 14 States voted against it, and 13 States abstained.
The Member States of the Human Rights Council voted as follows:
  • In favor: Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, China, Congo, Cote d’Ivoire, Cuba, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Morocco, Namibia, Pakistan, Philippines, Russia, South Africa, Venezuela, and Vietnam
  • Opposed: Austria, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Montenegro, South Korea, Romania, Macedonia, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America
  • Abstained: Argentina, Botswana, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Gabon, Kuwait, Maldives, Mexico, Peru, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, and the United Arab Emirates.
The working group’s mandate is open-ended, rather than time limited. The Human Rights Council has instructed it to hold its first session in 2015, allowing time for the working group to be constituted. The first two sessions will be focused on deliberating on the content, scope, nature and form of the future treaty. The third session will be dedicated to negotiating substantive elements for the draft treaty. The Human Rights Council expects the working group to submit a progress report for consideration by the Council at its 31st session, to be held in March 2016. Id., paras. 2-4. UN Human Rights Council, Resolution 26/9, Elaboration of an internationally legally binding instrument on transnational corporations and other business enterprises with respect to human rights, para. 1. 


Proyecto de Resolución en español:


No hay comentarios:

Publicar un comentario